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The lower joint moves freely and smoothly in all directions. This steering wheel will also fits your BMW e9: Item is a very rare engine diagnostic kit made by BMW for it's 4 cylinder cars of the early '70's.

Designed to mount to the engine and distributor, with 2 orange-clear capped plug in ports to analyze This bumper will fit on all E9 3.

Mounting hardware round washers and nuts included. Show signs of yellowing and scuff marks from shoes when people kick the doors o Wheel has slight damage around the lip but is fully functional see pic.

Tire can be used as a spare. Shipping to the lower Has wear on the panel. Would be best used as a core to be re-wrapped.

Wheel is in excellent condition. Shipping to the lower 48 states only. The wheels are professionally refurbished. As you can see from the pictures really good looking whe The upholstery is Vinyl.

The center BMW Roundel emblem is slightly crooked, but it can Electromobility is therefore an important way of enabling that — as long as the power is obtained from renewable energies.

The Boston Consulting Group predicts that electric vehicles will have a market share of up to 50 percent by But what does switching to electromobility actually mean, and what are its consequences?

Electromobility or e-mobility is the use of electric cars, as well as e-bikes or pedelecs, electric motorbikes, e-buses and e-trucks.

The common feature of all of them is that they are fully or partly driven electrically, have a means of storing energy on board, and obtain their energy mainly from the power grid.

Hybrid vehicles combine two powertrain technologies. They can usually cover shorter distances with their electric drive, but their combustion engine means they can also manage long journeys without any problem.

Hybrid cars that not only use the electricity recovered when they taxi or brake, but can also be recharged from the socket, are termed plug-in hybrids.

Hybrids are regarded as a bridging technology until a time when cars can be fully powered by electricity. Emissions are having a serious impact on the climate and environment: More and more CO 2 is entering the atmosphere, with the result that the Earth is becoming warmer and warmer.

Electric vehicles counter that: E-cars are CO 2 -neutral in the full sense of the word only if the batteries and the electricity to power them are produced using renewable energies.

And the number of people living in cities will grow: Combustion engines are on the way out because fossil fuels like oil, from which gasoline and diesel are produced, are finite resources.

How long these sources will last is a moot point. To enable alternative forms of powertrain to become established, many countries offer incentives to buy e-cars — Norway, for example, subsidizes them greatly.

Electrical energy is stored in a rechargeable battery. The more efficient conversion is, the longer a car can travel when a battery is fully charged.

Finally, an electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy: The e-motor obtains this energy to generate magnetic fields.

Their attractive and repellent forces produce a rotational motion. Other core components of an e-car are the DC-DC converter. E-cars have to be charged from the socket to stay mobile.

That takes at least eight hours, depending on the vehicle and battery. However, not every socket is designed to handle large amounts of electricity flowing over a lengthy time.

That problem is solved by wall boxes at home, which make recharging almost four times faster. Charging a battery at public alternating current AC stations takes just as long, whereas only one hour is needed at direct current DC fast charging stations.

The battery in an e-car has to be charged with direct current, but the electricity from the public grid is alternating current.

These fast DC charging stations enable high charging performance, but are rarer at present because they are more expensive.

A special cable is required to use both types of charging station. The time needed to charge a car will soon be reduced to 20 minutes or less thanks to efficient technology such as ultra-high-power chargers and improved batteries.

Very small e-cars with a low weight can have a low consumption of less than 7 kWh per kilometers. Other sub-compact and compact cars roughly consume between 11 and 13 kWh per kilometers.

Nevertheless, they can travel up to kilometers thanks to their particularly large batteries. The invention enabled low-cost, flexible generation of electricity wherever it was needed and thus electrification in everyday life, industry — and vehicles.

The first cars with an electric motor were presented at the end of the 19th century. That from the Belgian Camille Jenatzy even set a record in From the end of the 19th century, trains and trams were supplied with energy by overhead lines or power rails.

As figures from the year show, e-cars were still widespread at the start of the 20th century: The combustion engine had a disadvantage back then: Vehicles had to be cranked up at considerable effort to get started.

Gasoline drives did not begin to displace other types of powertrain until , when the electric starter was invented.

From then on, e-vehicles were relegated to a niche existence, although they never completely disappeared. In the mids, a hybrid model came on the market in the shape of the Toyota Prius.

In , a Californian Roadster became the first e-car on the road that was suitable for highways and lengthier distances. A tricycle with an electric motor and battery.

The first Benz car with a combustion engine was not presented until Because they have no transmission, all e-cars accelerate more constantly and faster than ones driven by gasoline or diesel.

But what is the top speed they can reach? Sports cars from the U. The fastest e-car in the world so far is from the Croatian manufacturer Rimac: That makes them ideal for the city.

Only premium-brand models can currently cover more than kilometers. However, the range depends on various factors: Low or high external temperatures drain the battery, as does the use of the radio or air-conditioning system.

Constant acceleration and braking likewise reduces the range. Electromobility is making advances worldwide. That means Germany ranks fourth in the world.

The front-runner is China, where , e-cars and plug-in hybrids were sold in The country aims to drive electromobility by means of strict regulations so as to ensure that at least 5 million e-cars are on the road by China is imposing a production quota as of to achieve that: Initially, every one-in-ten of all cars built there must be powered by an electric motor, a figure that is to rise to 12 percent from on.

However, the Scandinavian country has the highest ratio of e-cars. Norway is the role model for electromobility: For the first time, more vehicles with a hybrid and electric drive than with a combustion engine were registered there in — thanks to massive subsidization.

The government taxes conventional cars heavily, whereas no taxes are incurred if clean cars are purchased.

Further benefits are lower vehicle tax and free use of toll roads and state-run ferries. From , only zero-emission cars are to be sold in Norway.

More and more manufacturers are launching not only e-cars, but also commercial vehicles with an electric motor which are suitable for everyday use — the Mercedes e-Vito and the Renault Master Z.

DHL has become one of the leading makers of electric vans: Electric vehicles are changing the way we move — not only because they are more eco-friendly.

An e-car costs more than a comparable gasoline or diesel vehicle — mainly due to the large costs of producing the battery, although its prices have fallen in the past years.

However, electricity is cheaper than fossil fuels. Moreover, electric vehicles require less maintenance and fewer repairs. A combustion engine has around 2, components that have to be made and assembled — compared with just in an electric motor.

E-cars can be serviced quickly by software updates over the air SOTA. The lithium-ion batteries used in e-cars have a long service life, boast a high energy density and can be recharged many times over.

They simply store less energy. Most batteries in e-cars today have a capacity of 20 to 60 kilowatt hours. The batteries in e-cars are to be used in future to stabilize smart grids.

Supply and demand for electricity may diverge, depending on the weather. Intelligent car charging technology should then be used to absorb excess energy, for instance, when there is a lot of sunshine.

By installing a photovoltaic system on the roof of their home, e-car owners can reduce dependence on external sources of power — and, with a wall box, eliminate the need to drive to a service station.

An additional means of storage at home can also collect energy for times when the sun shines less. The electronics in e-cars must be powerful and efficient — they influence how far and fast the cars can travel.

Power semiconductors made of silicon carbide SiC are setting new standards here. Silicon carbide can handle higher loads and stresses than silicon Si — and needs less energy for that, even at high temperatures.

Electrical power can be converted in a far more efficient and compact manner thanks to higher switching speeds and lower conduction power losses than silicon-based components.

The lower losses also mean that less cooling of the battery is required. That ensures higher efficiency and fewer heat sinks on the battery — making it smaller and lighter.

Electric cars deliver high performance and have a far higher efficiency than vehicles with a combustion engine: The ratio between the energy that is fed in and can be used is around 90 percent for electric powertrains.

That figure is just 35 percent for gasoline engines and 45 for diesel engines. The rest is lost as heat, for instance. Due to the fact that a high torque is available immediately, e-cars can accelerate faster from 0.

They can also obtain energy with the aid of the inverter, such as when they brake, and feed it back to the battery. This effect is called recuperation.

E-cars have special rights in some countries and cities: In Germany, they can park free of charge in Hamburg and Stuttgart and use the bus lanes in Dortmund, for example.

E-car drivers in Norway have even more privileges. Since powerful car batteries are still very expensive, the price of e-cars is on average higher than that of comparable models with a combustion engine.

But for whom is buying an e-car worthwhile? Assuming a distance traveled of 9, kilometers a year and a service life of eight years, the total cost of ownership of an e-car can be lower than a vehicle with a conventional drive.

Despite its many advantages, there are other challenges relating to electromobility in addition to the fact that the price of an e-car is still high at present.

E-cars are very quiet. That means a lot less noise, especially in cities and along main roads. Pedestrians and cyclists will have to get used to that first.

However, if electric cars are moving at low speed, they are so quiet that they might not even be heard at all. If the e-car is traveling faster, the noise made by its tires can be heard anyway.

To ensure that e-cars are zero-emission in the full sense of the word, their electricity must come from renewable sources and not, for example, coal-fired power plants, while production of the battery must also be CO 2 -neutral.

The use of renewable energies is also the objective of the German government: If the costly, resource-intensive process of producing batteries becomes even more eco-friendly, that advantage will be even greater, states the research institute.

The attractiveness of electromobility stands and falls by the batteries: What distance can the cars cover with them, how much do they cost, what do they weigh?

New technologies, as well as elements from the semiconductor material silicon carbide SiC , are required to achieve higher efficiencies and top performance.

The low range of e-cars at present deters many from buying one, according to a survey by the business consulting firm Deloitte.

Yet most of us could now already use an electric vehicle for many of the journeys we make without any problem. Germans drive less than 40 kilometers on average on more than 80 percent of the days they use a car, states the Federal Ministry for the Environment.

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